Scientific publications on the key mechanisms of coronavirus infections
The team of researchers at the Dr. Rath Research Institute established that specific combinations of micronutrients are able to significantly inhibit all known key mechanisms of coronavirus infections. These findings were the basis of several scientific research publications, including in peer-reviewed journals, which are linked below.
Inhibition of ACE2 Expression by Ascorbic Acid Alone and its Combinations with Other Natural Compounds
Infectious Diseases: Research and Treatment, Volume 14: 1–7
Background: Angiotensin-converting enzyme II or ACE2 is an integral membrane protein present on many types of cells, including vascular endothelial cells and lung alveolar epithelial cells. This receptor serves as the entry point for SARS-coronaviruses (SARS-CoVs), including a novel coronavirus 2019-nCoV. Limited availability of these receptors can thwart cellular entry of this virus.
Methods: We tested the effects of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) on cellular expression of ACE2 at the protein and RNA levels in human small alveolar epithelial cells and microvascular endothelial cells. In addition, we investigated whether combinations of ascorbic acid with other natural compounds can affect ACE2 expression.
Results: The results show that ascorbic acid itself has moderate but consistent lowering effects on ACE2 expression at the cellular, protein, and RNA levels. Some natural compounds were effective in lowering ACE2 cellular expression, with the highest inhibitory effects observed for baicalin (75%) and theaflavin (50%). Significantly, combinations of these and other test compounds with ascorbic acid further decreased ACE2 expression. The highest impact of ascorbate on ACE2 expression was noted when combined with theaflavin (decrease from 50% to 87%), zinc (decrease from 22% to 62%), and with 10-undecenoic acid (from 18% to 53%). Ascorbic acid showed moderate additional benefits in decreasing ACE2 expression when combined with N-acetylcysteine and baicalin.
Conclusion: Our study provides valuable experimental confirmation of the efficacy of micronutrients in controlling ACE2 expression—the coronavirus cellular “entry” point. It further validates the importance of nutrient interactions in various aspects of cellular metabolism and in considering potential therapeutic applications of nutrient-based approaches. The study shows that ascorbic acid and its combination with some natural compounds could be included in developing preventive and therapeutic approaches toward the current pandemic.
Keywords: Ascorbic acid, coronavirus, ACE2, natural compounds, COVID-19
Micronutrient combination inhibits two key steps of coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection: viral binding to ACE2 receptor and its cellular expression
INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus pandemic poses an unprecedented challenge to human health as well as global economies. The quest for vaccines and other approaches to this pandemic thus far focuses on synthetic molecules that are – predictably – associated with a variable degree of adverse effects.
RESULTS: Here we report that a composition of specific micronutrients can almost completely block the interaction between the binding site of the coronavirus and its cellular anchor, the ACE2 receptor. Moreover, this micronutrient composition was able to significantly decrease the expression of the ACE2 receptor on human alveolar (lung) epithelial cells by over 90%.
CONCLUSION: This study provides the basis for effective and safe public health strategies based on an optimum intake of micronutrients. It allows people around the world to actively participate in the prevention of coronavirus infections – beyond wearing masks, social distancing, and other defensive measures.
Effective and safe global public health strategy to fight the COVID-19 pandemic: Specific micronutrient composition inhibits Coronavirus cell-entry receptor (ACE2) expression
Optimum micronutrient intake is the only scientifically proven way to improve general immune resistance against infections, a fact documented in every leading textbook of biology. This study provides scientific evidence that, in addition, specific micronutrient compositions are powerful tools in the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic.
Both, SARS-CoV-2 – the virus that causes the current pandemic – and other coronaviruses enter body cells via a specific receptor, the Angiotensin-Converting-Enzyme 2 (ACE2). The ACE2 receptor is expressed by many cell types, including lung epithelial cells as well as endothelial cells of the vascular system.
Based on our earlier research that demonstrated that specific micronutrients can block several mechanisms of viral infections, we tested the efficacy of these natural compounds in suppressing the expression of the ACE2 receptor on human endothelial cells and small airway epithelial cells.
Our results show that a micronutrient composition comprising vitamin C as well as certain amino acids, polyphenols, and trace elements is able to suppress this viral ‘entry door’ into the body under both normal and inflammatory conditions, which are associated with infections.
Thus, vitamin-rich nutrition and micronutrient supplementation should be implemented as effective, safe and affordable public health strategies to fight the COVID-19 pandemic and help prevent future outbreaks. Optimizing the micronutrient status of the entire population should form the basis for any global strategy to help prevent future pandemics across the world, including the developing nations.